Agrarian movements in Bihar during the British colonial rule: A case study of Champaran movement
British colonial rule in India brought about transformation in every area of Indian social, political and economic life. The impact of British colonial rule on agrarian society was decisive. The policy of colonial rule had changed the agrarian structure in India. The colonial rule had also developed new mechanisms to interact with peasants. Both new agrarian structure and new mechanisms to interact with peasants divided the agrarian society into the proprietors, working peasants and labourers. The roots of exploitation and misery of majority of people in agrarian society can be traced in the land tenure systems. The land relations were feudal in the permanent settlement areas. In the areas of Mahalwari and Ryotwari areas, the land had passed to absentee moneylenders, Sahukars and businessman due to large scale peasants’ indebtedness. This paper will give an overview of some of the major agrarian movements and their impact on the agrarian society. The peasants had been the worst sufferers of British Raj in colonial India. Because of the nature of land revenue system and its impact on agrarian society, the agrarian movements emerged in many parts of India. But North India was the epicentre of agrarian movements during British colonial rule. In the initial years of the British colonial rule the agrarian movements were directed against the extraction of the zamindars and absentee moneylenders. The peasants had developed their organizations and protesting against local zamindars and other intermediaries. The most famous uprisings in the colonial period were Santhal Revolt, Indigo planters, Pabana revolt, Deccan Uprisings, Moplah Uprisings and Champaran movement. The Champaran Satyagraha was a crucial starting point to the national movement. This paper analyses importance of Champaran Satyagraha and its impact.
Roma Rupam. Agrarian movements in Bihar during the British colonial rule: A case study of Champaran movement. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, 2020, Pages 82-85